Japanisches Mahjong Die Spielregeln
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Yakuman is a value for limit hands which are hard to get, and in some variations multiple yakuman are applied. Declaring riichi means declaring a ready hand, and is a kind of yaku.
A player may declare ready if a player's hand needs only one tile to complete a legal hand tenpai , and the player has not claimed another players' discards to make open melds.
When declaring ready, a player can win on a discard even when the hand didn't have a yaku because ready itself is a yaku. In that case, the player shows only the tiles that are related to waits , or reveals all the tiles in the hand depending on the rules.
Every kind of tile can become a dora tile. A dora tile adds the same number of han value as the number of its corresponding " dora indicator" tiles.
Dora is not counted as yaku , and having it without yaku does not meet the one yaku requirement for a winning hand. At the start of a hand, the third tile from the back end of the dead wall on the upper stack is flipped and becomes a dora indicator.
For example, if an indicator is a Green dragon , Red dragons are counted as dora by the sequence shown below, in which the Red dragon wraps around to the White dragon.
The number of dora indicators increases in the following manner: Each time a player calls a quad , the next adjacent dora indicator tile is flipped, starting with the fourth tile from the back end.
The indicator is flipped immediately after the quad is called, and after that the player draws a supplemental tile for their hand from the back end of the dead wall.
The number of indicators increases in that direction, which becomes five if a single player calls four quads, and that is the largest possible number on the upper stack see four quads.
It is said that the name dora stands for "dragon," although it has nothing to do with dragon tiles in contemporary Japanese mahjong.
In the Japanese scoring system, two factors are considered: the han value and fu value. If the han value is five or more, then the fu value is still counted but no longer necessary.
A winner acquires points based on these values, which correspond to a points-value table. There is a distinction between winning from the wall and winning from a discard.
In the case of tsumo , the other three players share the responsibility of paying out points, according to the scoring table.
For ron , the player who discarded the tile pays all of the points. In many mahjong variants, discards are simply placed in the middle of the table in a disorganized fashion.
However, with the Japanese variant, tiles are neatly placed in order of discard in front of each player. In turn, each player accumulates a discard pile, with each hand.
Typically, discards are placed in rows of 6 tiles per customary rule. In addition, open calls for chii , pon , and kan have discard specific rules, by which they must indicate the source and type of discarded tile.
This way, a record is maintained for all discarded tiles corresponding to each player. Likewise, game strategy depends on the state of the discards and the players' hands.
For all of these rules, if discards are not in the discard piles because they have been called to make open melds, the rules still work for such discards.
In Japanese mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available. They can be declared under the following conditions:.
Various game conditions penalizes players , given the following criteria:. A game ends after the last hand of the last round, which is usually the South prevailing wind round.
A game ends when a player's score becomes zero or less, or when it falls below zero depending on the rules. Some rules may allow continued gameplay with a player having a negative point value.
The prevailing wind becomes west. Depending on the rules, it can be followed by an East round again or instead White dragon, Green dragon, Red dragon and East rounds.
At the end of a match, players are often given bonus points or penalties depending on their place see final points and place.
The variant is available via online play, notably Tenhou. In addition, many game consoles port mahjong games, as well as various PC software.
There are also tournaments of various sizes, the largest outside of Japan being the World Riichi Championship.
Smaller events, such as the European Riichi Championship, as well as a few other tournaments can have attendance numbers of tens of people, sometimes even over From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: Japanese Mahjong yaku. Main article: Japanese Mahjong scoring rules. Singapore: Tuttle Publishing. Flower Slide Mahjong.
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Players can try to form seven pairs or the rare thirteen orphans hand. Both of these hands are closed by default. Each individual tile group must be composed of a single suit or type of mahjong tile.
All groups, except kantsu , are composed of groups of 3 tiles. A special set of rules and procedures applies to quads.
When in special possession of all four tiles of a specific type, a player may invoke these rules, or otherwise, decline the option.
Like many aspects of the game, this is a risk-reward option. When choosing to invoke the "quad rules", a player may declare after the current tile draw, if four tiles or the fourth tile is in the hand.
If a player possesses three tiles and a player discarded a fourth, then the player may invoke the "quad rules" on that discard. After the declaration for a quad, then a player gains special access to the dead wall.
This is one of the first four tiles to the left of the dora-indicator. Afterwards, if the the extra tile does not complete the hand, the player must discard and play moves on to the right.
As a sidenote, for each call kan, the player's tile count increases by one for each quad. Yet once again, a quad counts as a triplet plus one.
Furthermore, when a player calls or declares a kan, an additional dora indicator tile is flipped. This is called the kandora.
Some rules may allow the kandora to be flipped immediately after the kan call. Other rules have stricter procedures on when the kandora tile is flipped.
Some make the distinction between the open kan and the closed kan. Finally, a tile is shifted from the end of the regular wall to the dead wall, in order to maintain tiles in the dead wall.
Because of the additional dora, a play using quads can be very risky or rewarding. Finally, a hand is distinguishable between an open hand and closed hand.
A closed hand is a player's hand, that had yet to make any claim on a discard. A hand in this state is fully concealed from the other players.
In the event a player makes a claim on a discard, then the player's hand changes from a closed hand to an open hand.
Usually, a player's hand value decreases in the event of an open hand, but this may not always be the case, especially for some yakuman hands.
Japanese mahjong strategy centers on knowing when to appropriately make the above calls. Knowledge of the yaku plays a large part in this decision making process.
The procedure of drawing, discarding, and maintaining a hand ends with many different scenarios. The ideal for any player is the completion of the hand and winning it.
A hand may end when all the tiles, except for the dead-wall tiles, are drawn, or when a player chombos, meaning making an illegal play.
After the end of the hand, points are exchanged accordingly. Then afterwards, the tiles are reshuffled to setup the next hand, or renchan.
Ideally, players seek to win hands. Once again, a winning hand is composed of a tenpai hand; and a winning tile may be claimed.
Of course, a player must actively declare the win ron or tsumo , or else, the player may also decline the win. Though, the latter option may be used for specific and strategic instances.
This can also be attained by the dead-wall draw with the special tsumo of rinshan kaihou yaku. Two other special win claims can be attained by ron via chankan.
It is most important to note: winning a hand requires a minimum of one yaku. Failure to meet this requirement may be subject to a penalty.
Depending on the rules, multiple winners are also possible for a hand. This event occurs when more than one player is waiting on the same tile s , and the wins are both claimed by discard.
This event is called a double ron or even triple ron. Some rules may allow double, but not triple. In this case, the losing player must pay the winning players according to their respective hand values.
Likewise, honba applies for both of them as well. Otherwise, some rules may apply the head bump rule, or atamahane.
In this case, only one of the players may claim the win over the other. The former winner may claim the win over the latter, or vice-versa depending on the rules agreed upon.
Also, known as ryuukyoku , the hand ends in a draw. In this case, all the tiles from the wall are drawn, except for the 14 tiles in the dead wall.
The player s in tenpai receive points from those in noten. However, that needed tile was never claimed. Various conditions may allow players to abort the hand.
In other words, a mahjong hand may end prematurely before anyone claims a win or before all the tiles are drawn and discarded.
In these events, no points are exchanged; and no penalties are enforced. Instead, the hand ends, and the tiles are reshuffled.
The chombo is a penalty to the player, who performs specific illegal procedures. Other illegal procedures may be forgivable if done accidentally, like accidentally drawing a tile from a different part of the wall.
However, things like cheating or winning without a yaku are more serious offenses. In the event of a chombo, the player must play out a penalty of points to the amount of a mangan.
Otherwise, the rules to chombo may be modified. A more common practice involves docking penalized points after the game to expedite it and not waste time enforcing the penalty.
Winning hands are awarded points based on the difficulty and luck needed to form them. So, the appropriate amount of points are exchanged between players according to the tables in the scoring rules of the game.
Naturally, the point exchanges are already handled by software and mahjong game sites. Even some automatic tables are capable of scoring calculations.
The winner of a hand collects any riichi bets on the table and additional points allowed by honba.
Games are organized into wind rounds. For each wind round, every player has the chance to be the dealer once. For shorter games, players may play a single East Round.
Here players only have the opportunity to hold the dealer seat once. After the conclusion of four wind rotations, then the game is brought to the end.
Yet, the points may invoke the extra round and bring the game into the South Round. Typically, the game ends after the final hand of the last round, when at least one player is scoring 30, or more.
This number may differ barring house rules. However, the entire game may end differently than the standard rounds. This may occur under the following conditions:.
Finally, the player with the greatest number of points at the end wins. While this additional calculation has its origins around gambling, the adjusted points also allows comparison between games.
For example, in two different games, a player may score exactly 34, points. However, in one game, the player finished 1st; while in the second game, the player finished 2nd.
The point adjustment becomes a better reflection on player performance, rather than just using the raw scores. Many rules of the game may be subject to various customization and house rules.
Many simply resort towards allowing or disallowing certain rules and even hand patterns. Others involve different methods of enforcement and point values.
Sometimes, games can be played with three players, simply because four players are not available. A modified version to the rules are created to accommodate this scenario.
For any 1-on-1 situation, even a two-player variation is possible. Though gameplay becomes even more limited than that of the three-player variation.
The tile count is even less; and often, it is down to a single suit. Washizu mahjong is a particular variant, that changes the nature of the tiles.
Here, three out of ever four tile type uses transparent tiles. This enables other players to be able to see most of the other players' hands.
The game may be played under a number of different environments. Light play or new players may engage under casual settings, where rule enforcement is not so strict.
Plus, the player pace may not be so rigorous either. Likewise, less emphasis on winning and losing is placed below that of merely enjoying the game and other players' company.
Formality to the game is increased under tournament settings. Naturally, participants are expected to be knowledgeable of the rules and strategies.
Commercial play are hosted in mahjong parlors , where players come to pay-to-play. Either at the parlors, casinos, or residences, gambling may be involved, whether it be legal or not legal.
Finally, professional play involves televised games; and a staff may take detailed record of games and their results. Jansou are known as mahjong parlors.
They're generally commercial establishments catered for mahjong play. Most jansou are located in Japan, but a small number are located in the United States.
Typcially, players enter these establishments to play with a fee. They typically apply their own game rules. A number of etiquette guidelines are in place, both written and unwritten depending on the playing environment.
Players are recommended to learn and take heed of these guidelines in order to maintain a positive game atmosphere. Players have been writing about the game as they play it.
Topics cover game activity, strategy, and overall experience. Books on various game subjects have been written.
Many focus on player development regarding game strategy and tactics. A number of video games featuring mahjong have been developed. The history of mahjong video games stretches as far back as the history of video gaming itself.
By the 's, mahjong has been big enough in Japan, such that it was natural for the game to progress within the then fledgling video game industry.
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